Libertarians often complain about the role of a paternalistic state, whether it’s seatbelt laws, limits on the size of soft drinks, higher taxes on beer and cigarettes, gun control, and many other laws the state will enforce to protect us. Libertarians do have some reason to fear a protective state because some free choices will have to go. But are free choices inviolable?
I can’t help wonder what the ancient Stoics might think. Perhaps they would agree strongly with some protections and regulations on our behavior. After all, they valued temperance for individuals, so why not temperance on a societal level? This is all speculation but the ancient Greeks often liked to think of the self as a microcosm that reflected the larger macrocosm. So maybe our own self-regulated behavior should reflect a self-regulating society.
In the name of the virtue of temperance we shouldn’t out-right ban everything. We shouldn’t outright ban externals because that would be treating externals as bad. Instead, maybe we should be lawfully limiting the extreme behavior with regard to externals. For example, we can drive cars fast but there has to be a speed limit that keeps vehicles from driving too fast. We can drink caffeine but our drinks will have an upper limit of caffeine in them. Heck, maybe all drugs could be legalized since drugs aren’t evil in themselves but they can be regulated and taxed more than other things that are preferred for our health and safety.
In the name of temperance, the amount of greed on Wallstreet would certainly need to be regulated. Too much greed and concentration of wealth can’t be good for the health of the state. We saw what Wallstreet speculation did to the economy during the housing and lending crisis of 2008. Perhaps, this idea of a paternalistic state is beginning to sound more like Plato’s Republic than Zeno’s Republic. But one must remember, Zeno’s Republic might’ve only been limited to the role of an anarchy for well-seasoned Stoics. If people in your society are all Stoics, then there wouldn’t need to be courts, currency, and temples. But in the case of a civilization made up of only an insignificant amount of Stoics, perhaps Stoic principles would need to be more lawfully enforced. Also, Plato’s Republic was far far more authoritarian than what’s being proposed so far.
What’s more, laws are just a mean to keeping society self-regulated but individuals need to educated to be self-regulated as well. After all, laws aren’t always there to keep ourselves in check. So, we’d have a national curriculum applied to all our schools and universities to teach Stoic temperance from kindergarten to secondary school and beyond. The schools would not only teach self-discipline but practical wisdom, justice, and courage.
In the Stoic state, there would be no outright prohibition on goods and services but there would be limits on excess.